Everyone has heard word "toxin" way too many times. The media-induced fear of being harmed by toxins gives rise to phobias, hysteria, and even psychiatric problems (for example, orthorexia). In this post, we are going to talk about types of endogenous (i.e. present in outside environment) toxins, proven ways they harm human bodies, and how to assess and personalize detoxes based on health state.
Toxin Effects on Human Health
Revolutionary changes in our civilization had resulted in a slew of several negative effects on human body. Search for “toxin effects” on Google Scholar produces about 2 million hits! Toxins were found to be triggers of many grave diseases and genetic mutations. Unfortunately, it takes time and research effort to collect information related to toxin effects. Human experiments are not deemed ethical, and with many new chemical compounds we only can wait and see.
What toxin is, in the first place??? According to the Title 18 of US criminal code, the term “toxin” means the toxic material or product of plants, animals, microorganisms (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substances, or a recombinant or synthesized molecule, whatever their origin and method of production1. That extends into modern life the original definition given by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger in 1888: “a harmful substance produced within living cells or organisms”2. In plain language, toxin is a substance of any origin that can harm. That’s how we’ll use this term from now on.
Harmful effect of toxins was known for quite a while. Almost 200 years ago, it was noticed that mercury was causing “mad hatter disease”. There also was a hypothesis that toxicity from leaded water pipes was a major cause of the decline of the Roman Empire. Now, with the explosion of industrial activity and products, there is a well-founded assumption that certain level of toxicity affects most—if not all—of the population.
How precisely the poisoning harms the health? The book 3 mentioned at least 8 pathways responsible for damaging the human bodies:
- Toxins poison enzymes so they don’t work properly.
- Toxins displace structural minerals, resulting in weaker bones and precipitated bone loss.
- Toxins damage detox organs: digestive tract, liver, and kidneys are unable to detox effectively, and the body remains toxic.
- Heavy toxic load overwhelms detox capacity so body detoxifies very selectively.
- Toxins damage DNA, which increases the rate of aging and degeneration.
- Many toxins activate or suppress our genes in undesirable ways; the health problems span generations.
- Toxins damage cell membranes so they don’t respond properly, i.e. insulin not signaling the cells to absorb more sugar, muscle cells not responding to the message from magnesium to relax.
- Toxins induce, inhibit, mimic, and block hormones. For example, arsenic disrupts thyroid hormone receptors on the cells, so the cells don’t get the message from the thyroid hormones to rev up metabolism, resulting in fatigue.
In addition to unpleasant respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, or hematological symptoms listed in Appendix 1, toxins are suspected to cause epidemics of type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, proliferation of depression and anxiety, ADHD, childhood obesity and autism. If that’s not scary enough, we have to mention that the effect of some toxins last long time as they can stay in our bodies for years!
|TOXIN||HALF-LIFE IN THE BLOOD|
|Lead||1–1.5 months (2–30 years in bone)|
Am I Toxic? How to Approach Suspected Toxin Exposure
Unless you ran away to live in Amazonia, it is impossible to avoid toxin exposure (it might be a problem even if you live in the wilderness, but animal and plant toxins is a totally different topic). If you think that any bothersome symptoms may be related to toxin effects, Nutri-IQ recommends 3-step approach:
- Estimate probability of being poisoned.
- Prevent further poisoning.
- Expel toxins from the body or reduce their effects as much as possible.
Step 1: Estimate Probability of Being Poisoned
As of today, Nutri-IQ catches the effects of some the most up to date researched and observed toxins. Nutri-IQ Toxin Exposure Assessment tool evaluates toxin exposure effects using data from3. These toxins are widely used in everyday life 4 and are described in Appendix 1.
Assume you had ran Nutri-IQ Toxin Exposure Assessment, or any other rapid assessment tool. The result shows there is a probability that yours or your client’s problems are related to toxin exposures. Let’s go to Step 2.
Step 2: Prevent Future Poisoning
Toxins may enter via the seemingly benign food we eat5, the water we drink, the air we breathe, the substances we touch or apply to our faces and bodies, and even treatments prescribed by doctors! Knowing that can stop the flow of toxins into the body.
Consider the following examples from personal care products used on daily basis3:
|Acrylates||Artificial nails||Cancer, fetal damage|
|Aluminum||Antiperspirant||Controversial connection to Alzheimer’s disease|
|Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)||Solvent and preservative for coloring agents and fragrances||Endocrine disruption, diabetes|
|Diethanolamine (DEA)||Moisturizer||Converted to cancer-causing nitrosamines, skin cancer|
|Parabens||Preservative and fragrance||Endocrine disruption, breast cancer|
|Phenylenediamine (CI+number)||Hair dye||Derived from coal tar, resulting in a wide range of toxic contaminants|
|Quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, etc.||Preservatives||Release formaldehyde, a known carcinogen|
These simple questions adopted from 3 may serve as a good starting point for your investigative work and prevention of further damage.
- Do you regularly eat processed foods, i.e. smoked and cured meat, sausages, store-bought meals?
- Do you regularly eat conventionally raised produce, meat, and dairy?
- Do you eat farm-raised fish?
- Do you eat large (i.e., mercury-contaminated) fish?
- Do you consume high-fructose corn syrup?
- Do you use more than two health and beauty products per day?
- Do you have mercury amalgam fillings? How many?
- Do you live in a house that contains lead pipes or copper plumbing soldered with lead (built prior to 1978)?
- Are your home, home furnishings, or home finishes (like paint and sealants) new and outgassing chemicals?
- Do you or your family come into contact with flame-resistant clothing or furnishings sprayed with products to prevent stains?
- Do you live in a house or work in a building that has mold?
- Are there mercury-emitting coal-using plants or cement manufacturing plants in your region?
- Are there fracking wells and/or pipelines in your region?
- Is there a nuclear power plant in your region? Does it have a poor safety record?
Knowing answers to those questions can help to stop the toxins influx. We would suggest to minimize and prevent toxin exposure using a few simple measures, such as:
- Visit the General Practitioner doctor and request testing for the suspected offenders
- Eliminate mercury amalgam fillings in the teeth
- Switch to other brands of house cleaning and personal care products ( check with your local health foods store which ones are less dangerous, or DIY – that’s a lot of fun!)
- Replace lead piping in the house with modern safe one (try to find a way to pay for replacement via insurance)
- Stop using plastic containers with BPA; switch to glass and stainless steel
- Move to the cleaner area (this one may be not as easy)
- Check out air and water quality in your area
- Adopt healthier dietary habits
Step 3: Expel Toxins or Reduce Their Effects
Let’s assume the entry point for the toxins is identified and toxin exposure is reduced. You decide that the negative health effects are significant enough to grant time, effort, and money investment. You would like to mitigate, lower or – in the best case scenario – eliminate the toxins effect with a detox.
According to 6, “Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.”
The nature equipped us, humans, with an amazing innate detoxification system answering a question about toxin expelling. It is not very much selective though. It works quietly until its detoxification capacity is exceeded, and then the body manifests bothersome symptoms. This capacity is different for everyone. There are research-based norms of exposure to specific toxins, however there is no clear guideline how much is too much for the infinite number of their combinations.
As much as the media talks about toxins, they also talk about detox. Google search for “detox” produces 244 million hits! It looks like the number of detoxes is even more than the number of possible toxin exposures. But whatever detox is chosen, its results are affected by the combination of personal choice, available finances, and overall state of health. Detox should be approached holistically, taking into consideration individual overall health state and body capabilities!
Nutri-IQ suggests that a good detox protocol:
- Minimizes exogenous risk factors via changes to lifestyle and dietary habits.
- Maximizes innate body capabilities taking into account health of the elimination pathways (that is, digestive tract, liver, kidneys, and possibly lungs).
- Are they able to detoxify effectively? Otherwise, any method of detoxification will fail and symptoms even can get worse!
- If not, how can we help?
- Renders help wherever body needs it, i.e. with supplements and dietary approaches.
- Works around health and financial constraints taking into consideration overall health and allergies.
Personalizing the detox approach in terms of financial and health constraints is an important aspect of detoxes that is quite often stays unattended. We will discuss that further in our post.
Can You Afford a Detox?
Obviously, detox selection considerations should include practitioners fee and cost of food and supplements. With an infinite number of detox protocols, we cannot dictate how to choose a practitioner supervising the detox (though we hope it is one of Nutri-IQ subscribers).
But we cannot stress enough that food is the most obvious entryway for the toxins, and at the same time is the easiest component to change within financial constraints.
The media is full of suggestions regarding “healthy food choices” and “healthy lifestyle”. In our case, we would want food to have as low toxic load as possible. When dealing with (suspected) poisoning, “healthy food” is clean, organic, locally grown and raised food cooked in a way to minimize its toxicity (see Appendix 1).
If eating everything organic is not an option, client’s hard-earned money can be used in the most effective way. Adjust food purchases where the risk is the highest! Buying organic at least for every produce type from the “Dirty Dozen” list gives the best cost-benefit ratio.
To further alleviate financial burden for the client, we suggest using supplements only when and where:
- client’s body is deficient on crucial for the detox success nutrients that can be identified with Nutri-IQ Nutritional Balance Assessment Tool:
- selenium, glutathione, zinc, folic acid, vitamins B2, B5, B12, vitamin C, molybdenum;
- low-protein diet.
- client’s body is missing capacity to detoxify, and supplements help to do that.
In all other cases, getting the nutrients from organic whole foods will make better financial sense for the client AND will ensure that nutrients work synergistically.
Are You Healthy Enough to Detox?
Usually, detox is associated with a slew of unpleasant symptoms, such as bad breath, irritability, and skin problems. For healthy individuals, they represent signs of normal detoxification and vanish in about 2-3 weeks into the process. But what if not???
The detox protocol is good if the rate of toxin release from the body tissues is the same or slightly lower than elimination rate . The latter is determined by the health of elimination pathways (that is, digestive tract, liver, kidneys, and possibly lungs).
If they are unable to detoxify effectively, any method of detoxification will fail and symptoms will even get worse!
The book3 provides example of the of Japanese city of Minamata, where the industrial methyl mercury was released into a river where people fished. As a result, the population had a lot of neurological disease. When they lost weight—for whatever reason—their neurological symptoms got much worse because the body could not get rid of the mercury fast enough!
Removal of gallbladder relieves pain and infection and very often is a medical requirement. But it is associated with uncontrollable dripping the bile from liver directly to the intestines, and causes loose stools with consumption of certain foods that are recommended on the detox protocols (such as sunflower oil, avocados, cold-water fish). Thus, even when fat consumption is desirable, it needs to be limited and supplements, such as fish-oil, are recommended.
The main detox organ, liver, may be impaired. For example, it may have cysts or tumours. In this case, liver operates above its capacity. Very often, symptoms of insufficient detoxification can be observed. In this case, consuming foods and supplements increasing liver detox capacity will make liver problems worse. One of the reasons is that increased expelling of toxins by the liver will push them to the cyst, thus making the cyst bigger and harming the body.
The kidneys filter the blood and are the second-most-important organs of toxin elimination, but some diseases and infection may reduce kidneys’ filtering capacity, and the body manifests signs and symptoms of late-stage kidney problems. These symptoms may be relatively benign, like fatigue and weakness, or strong and difficult to control, like persistent high blood pressure.
With increased filtering demand or water consumption to flush out toxins, overwhelmed kidneys will send toxins back to the body. Another problem caused by the impaired filtering capacity is water intoxication as hyponatremia can cause fatal disturbance in brain functions due to excessive water intake 7.
If a liver or kidneys impairment is known or suspected, full detox is not recommended, and a clean, organic diet for the gut health should be observed instead. In parallel, the measures to restore the detox organs need to be undertaken.
Insufficient Detox Ability
Anytime there is a bad reaction to a drug, you can be pretty sure there is a detoxification problem3. Reaction to a drug occur of insufficient capacity to detoxify the substances the drugs contain.
Some symptoms of the problems with liver detox function include the following:
- reactions to sulfite food additives,
- reactions to medications,
- allergic asthma,
- caffeine intolerance (even small amounts keep you awake at night),
- feeling sick after eating garlic,
- strong urine odor after eating asparagus,
- intolerance to perfumes or strong odors.
Physiologically, liver uses glutathione as a main component of detoxification. However, people with certain conditions have been found to have a deficiency of glutathione, probably due to their greatly increased need for it 8. These conditions include:
- age-related hearing loss,
- CVD including myocardial infarction,
- COPD, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis,
- cystic fibrosis,
- kidney stones,
- neurological symptoms,
In those cases, supplementation with glutathione (i.e. NAC) would be recommended when starting a detox protocol, if there is no detox organ (liver) damage. Otherwise, detox is not recommended.
Also, several drugs and chemical compounds can inhibit detoxification3, so there is a tendency to over-supplement to get detox results:
- benzodiazepine antidepressants (for example, Centrax, Librium, Prozac, and Valium), antihistamines (used for allergies), stomach-acid-secretion-blocking drugs (used for stomach ulcers), Ketoconazole, Sulfaphenazole, naringenin from grapefruit juice, capsaicin from red chili pepper, eugenol from clove oil.
In case those medicines are prescribed, consultation with the prescribing physician is recommended before starting a detox. Increased detoxification rate may change rate of medication absorption, and thus reduce disease control.
Long, healthy, and happy life is everybody’s ultimate goal. Despite of the fact that toxins are ubiquitous in modern life and definitely represent a serious obstacle to this goal, there are ways to reduce the risks. Finding a reliable and friendly wellness professional who can help through the hurdles of the detox is definitely a solution. We cannot stress more that detox is a life-time journey!
Even if you do nothing other than live as cleanly as possible, your body will continue to slowly detoxify – and this detox is definitely good for you. In addition, you can incorporate the measures we were talking above in your daily life, and find a way to sweat the toxins out. By becoming your body’s best friend, adopting some healthier habits and avoiding toxins as much as possible we give tremendous help to our body, allow our bodies to do repairs to any damage done by toxic overload, and live healthy, happy, and productive lives in this wonderful world.
APPENDIX 1. Common toxins sources and effects on human health
|TOXIN||USES AND OCCURRENCES||HARMFUL EFFECTS ON HUMAN BODY|
|Acrylamide9||· Used to manufacture polyacrylamide for treating waste water discharge from water treatment plants and industrial processes.|
· Used in the production of dyes and organic chemicals, contact lenses, cosmetics and toiletries, permanent-press fabrics, paper and textile production, pulp and paper production, ore processing, sugar refining, and as a chemical grouting agent and soil stabilizer for the construction of tunnels, sewers, wells and reservoirs.
· Formed in high-carbohydrates fried, grilled, or baked foods.
|Known to have caused several types of cancer.|
|Acrylonitrile10||Breaks down quickly (half-life: 5 to 50 hours). Is broken down by bacteria in surface water. Does not build up in the food chain.|
· Used to make other chemicals: plastics, synthetic rubber, and acrylic fibers;
· Also was used as a pesticide in the past.
|Breathing in high concentrations causes: |
· nose and throat irritation,
· tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, changes in the breathing rate, fluid accumulation in the lungs, weakness, and paralysis;
· decreased fertility and birth defects,
· nausea, dizziness, weakness, headache,
· impaired judgment,
· burned skin,
· redness and blisters.
|Aluminum11||Aluminum occurs naturally in soil, water, and air. Found in consumer products including:|
· buffered aspirin
· food additives
|Those who breathe large amounts of aluminum dusts can have lung problems and decreased performance in some tests that measure functions of the nervous system.|
Some studies show that people exposed to high levels of aluminum may develop Alzheimer’s disease
Some people who have kidney disease store a lot of aluminum in their bodies and develop bone or brain diseases
|Arsenic12||In animals and plants, combines with carbon and hydrogen to form organic arsenic compounds. |
Organic arsenic compounds are used as pesticides, primarily on cotton plants.
Inorganic arsenic compounds are mainly used to preserve wood. Copper chromated arsenic (CCA) is used to make “pressure-treated” lumber.
|Breathing high levels of inorganic arsenic causes sore throat or irritated lungs. |
Skin contact with inorganic arsenic may cause redness and swelling.
Ingesting very high levels of arsenic can result in death.
Ingestion of inorganic arsenic increases the risk of skin cancer and cancer in the liver, bladder, and lungs.
Inhalation of inorganic arsenic can cause increased risk of lung cancer.
Exposure to lower levels can cause:
· diarrhea, damage to the kidneys, nausea and vomiting,
· decreased production of red and white blood cells,
· abnormal heart rhythm,
· damage to blood vessels,
· sensation of “pins and needles” in hands and feet,
· darkening of the skin,
· appearance of small “corns” or “warts” on the palms, soles, and torso.
|Benzene 13||Ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume.|
Also is a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke.
· To make plastics, resins, and nylon and other synthetic fibers.
· Rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides.
Natural sources of benzene include emissions from volcanoes and forest fires.
|-Breathing very high levels of benzene: death,|
-Exposure to high levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness;
vomiting, irritation of the stomach, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death.
· Harmful effects on the bone marrow; can cause a decrease in red blood cells leading to anemia.
· Cause excessive bleeding
· Can affect the immune system, increasing the chance for infection.
· Irregular menstrual periods
· Decrease in the size of their ovaries.
|Bisphenol A (BPA)14, 15||Used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins used in protective and corrective eyewear, sports safety equipment, cars and boats, medical incubators, food storage containers, casings for cell phones.||· Possible health effects on the brain and prostate gland of fetuses, infants and children,|
· Can also affect children’s behavior,
· Possible link between BPA and increased blood pressure.
|Cadmium16||· Is extracted during the production of other metals |
· Used in batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics.
|· Breathing high levels: severe damage to the lungs. |
· Ingestion of very high levels: severe irritation of the the stomach, vomiting and diarrhea.
· Long-term exposure to lower levels: buildup in the kidneys and possible kidney disease, lung damage and fragile bones.
Other names: trichloromethane and methyl trichloride.
|Is formed when chlorine is added to water.|
· In the past, was used as an inhaled anesthetic during surgery,
· Today, is used to make other chemicals
|· Dizziness, fatigue, and headache,|
· Long-term exposure in the air or in the water may damage liver and kidneys.
· Sores on contact spots
· Miscarriages, birth defects.
· Abnormal sperm
|Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)18||Once widely used as a pesticide, but is banned since 1972 in the USA||· Affects the nervous system, causes tremors and seizures. |
· Harmful effects on reproduction and ability to breastfeed
· Increased chance of having premature babies
· Affected the liver
|Dioxins (the most toxic: TCDD, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin)19,20||Dioxins and furans are some of the most toxic chemicals known to science|
· Formed by burning chlorine-based chemical compounds with hydrocarbons.
· By-product of waste-burning incinerators and paper mills which use chlorine bleaching
· Production of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastics
· Production of certain chlorinated chemicals (pesticides).
|· irritation to the eyes; |
· allergic dermatitis, chloracne;
· gastrointestinal disturbance;
· possible reproductive, teratogenic effects;
· liver, kidney damage;
· various cancers
|Fluoride21||· Used to make certain chemical compounds, in making steel, chemicals, ceramics, lubricants, dyes, plastics, and pesticides.|
· Hydrofluoric acid is used for etching glass.
· Are often added to drinking water supplies and to a variety of dental products, including toothpaste and mouth rinses, to prevent dental cavities.
|· High levels result in denser but more brittle bones. |
· Decreased fertility and sperm and testes damage.
· Irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract.
· Hydrogen fluoride may also damage the heart.
|Lead22||Used in the production of batteries, ammunition, and metal products (solder and pipes). |
Because of health concerns, the use of lead in paints, ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder has been dramatically reduced.
The use of lead as an additive to automobile gasoline was banned in 1996 in the United States.
|· Long-term exposure: decreased learning, memory, and attention|
· Weakness in fingers, wrists, or ankles.
· Anemia and damage to the kidneys.
· Increases in blood pressure, particularly in middle-aged and older individuals.
· Severe damage to the brain and kidneys that can cause death.
· In pregnant women, causes a miscarriage.
· In men, causes damage to reproductive organs.
|Mercury23||Metallic mercury is used to produce chlorine gas and caustic soda|
Is also used in thermometers, dental fillings, and batteries.
Mercury salts are sometimes used in skin lightening creams and as antiseptic creams and ointments.
|· The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury. |
· Exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can permanently damage the brain, kidneys, and developing fetus.
· Effects on brain functioning may result in irritability, shyness, tremors, changes in vision or hearing, and memory problems.
· Lung damage, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increases in blood pressure or heart rate, skin rashes, and eye irritation.
|Organochlorine pesticides (OC)24||OCs are a group of human-made chemicals used as insecticides and pesticides i.e. DDT. Not used in the USA and Canada, but in some developing countries used to kill malaria-spreading insects. |
OCs get in human food chain via fish.
|See DDT above.|
|Organophosphate pesticides25||The most widely used insecticides today.||· Severe symptoms are seizures, slow pulse, difficulty breathing, and coma.|
· Headache, dizziness, weakness, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, salivation, watery eyes, and small pupils.
· Long after exposure, people also can develop nervous system problems such as muscle weakness and numbness and tingling of the hands and feet (neuropathy).
· Long-term exposure can cause confusion, anxiety, loss of memory, loss of appetite, disorientation, depression, and personality changes.
· Some studies in adults and children have linked organophosphate exposure to lymphoma and leukemia.
|Phthalates26||Used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break (plasticizers)|
Some phthalates are used as solvents.
They are used in hundreds of products, such as vinyl flooring, adhesives, detergents, lubricating oils, automotive plastics, plastic clothes (raincoats), and personal-care products.
Used widely in polyvinyl chloride plastics, which are used to make products such as plastic packaging film and sheets, garden hoses, inflatable toys, blood-storage containers, medical tubing, and some children’s toys.
|· Affect the reproductive system, especially male reproductive tract.|
· Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with adverse impacts on neurodevelopment, including lower IQ, and problems with attention and hyperactivity, and poorer social communication development 27
|Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)28||Man-made chemicals found in plastics.|
Used in a variety of consumer products to make them difficult to burn.
|· Altered neurodevelopment.|
· Carcinogenic effect (liver tumours), thyroid hormone bioactivity29
|Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)30||A group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. |
Some PAHs are manufactured. Found in coal tar, crude oil, creosote, and roofing tar, but a few are to make dyes, plastics, and pesticides.
|· Irritation of eyes and breathing passages|
· Difficulty reproducing
· Blood and liver abnormalities.
· Cancerous tumours.
· Harmful effects on the skin, body fluids, and ability to fight disease. 31,32
|Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)33|
Some are known in the U.S. by the trade name Aroclor.
|Used as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment.|
The manufacturing of PCBs was stopped in the U.S. in 1977 because of harmful health effects.
|· Skin conditions, such as acne and rashes. |
· Anemia; acne-like skin conditions; and liver, stomach, and thyroid gland injuries.
· Changes in the immune system, behavioural alterations, and impaired reproduction (not known to cause birth defects)
|Vinyl chloride34||Also known as as chloroethene, chloroethylene, ethylene monochloride, or monochloroethylene. |
Used to make a polymer called polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which consists of long repeating units of vinyl chloride. PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials; furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts.
|· Feeling dizzy or sleepy. |
· People who breathe extremely high levels of vinyl chloride can die.
· Damage to the liver, lungs, and kidneys; damage to the heart and impaired blood clotting.
· Nerve damage,
· Immune reaction
· Changes on the skin, bone destruction -Impaired sex drive; damage to the sperm and testes; irregular menstrual periods.
· High blood pressure during pregnancy.
· Carcinogenic effects (breast, liver, lung cancer, blood)
- U.S. Code. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
- Brieger, L. Zur Kenntniss des Tetanin und des Mytilotoxin. Archiv f. pathol. Anat. 112, 549–551 (1888). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01883589
- The Toxin Solution. How Hidden Poisons in the Air, Water, Food, and Products We Use Are Destroying Our Health–AND WHAT WE CAN DO TO FIX IT. Joseph Pizzorno, HarperCollins, 2017
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Downloaded on 25 November, 2020
- Why Was Chicken the Primary Source of Arsenic Exposure in Children?
- Wikipedia: Detoxification. Downloaded on Dec. 2, 2020
- John W. Gardner, MC FS USA, Death by Water Intoxication, Military Medicine, Volume 167, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages 432–434, https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/167.5.432
- Alexander C. White, Victor J. Thannickal, Barry L. Fanburg,Glutathione deficiency in human disease, The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Volume 5, Issue 5,1994,Pages 218-226,ISSN 0955-2863, https://doi.org/10.1016/0955-2863(94)90039-6
- ToxFAQs™ for Acrylamide
- ToxFAQs™ for Acrylonitrile
- Public Health Statement for Aluminum
- ToxFAQsTM for Arsenic
- ToxFAQsTM for Benzene
- Facts about BPA
- What is BPA, and what are the concerns about BPA?
- ToxFAQsTM for Cadmium
- ToxFAQsTM for Chloroform
- ToxFAQsTM for DDT, DDE, and DDD
- The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
- Dioxins & Furans: The Most Toxic Chemicals Known to Science
- ToxFAQsTM for Fluorides
- ToxFAQsTM for Lead
- ToxFAQsTM for Mercury
- Organochlorine (OC) Pesticides
- CDC HSB | Organophosphates
- National Biomonitoring Program | Phthalates Factsheet
- Health Care Without Harm
- ToxFAQs™ for Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
- Technical Fact Sheet – Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Introduction (PBDEs)
- ToxFAQs™ for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- Public Health Statement for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
- ToxFAQs™ for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
- Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride